Synthesis and characterization of calcium titanate (CaTiO3) as a potential electrochemical sensor of organic pollutants in aqueous solution


  • Juan José Hinostroza Instituto Tecnológico de Tijuana, Tecnológico Nacional de México, Calzada del Tecnológico 12950, Tomas Aquino, 22414 Tijuana, Baja California, México
  • Balter Trujillo Navarrete Instituto Tecnológico de Tijuana, Tecnológico Nacional de México, Calzada del Tecnológico 12950, Tomas Aquino, 22414 Tijuana, Baja California, México
  • Rosa María Félix Navarro Instituto Tecnológico de Tijuana, Tecnológico Nacional de México, Calzada del Tecnológico 12950, Tomas Aquino, 22414 Tijuana, Baja California, México
  • Francisco Paraguay Delgado Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31136 Chihuahua, Chihuahua, México
  • Jassiel R. Rodríguez Barrera Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CISECE), Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada 3918, Zona Playitas, 22860 Ensenada, Baja California, México
  • Adrián Ochoa Terán Instituto Tecnológico de Tijuana, Tecnológico Nacional de México, Calzada del Tecnológico 12950, Tomas Aquino, 22414 Tijuana, Baja California, México



Perovskite, CaTiO3, Organic contaminants, Electrochemical sensor, Aqueous solution


Organic contaminants are highly toxic and volatile and accumulate in fatty tissues. Due to their persistence and mobility, it is possible to find them practically anywhere on the planet, even where they have never been used. For this reason, monitoring and vigilance in water bodies are essential. We synthesized calcium titanate (CaTiO3) particles using the solid-state method in the present research. Several physicochemical techniques characterized the particles: energy dispersive spectroscopy (EED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (ERD), and electrochemical: cyclic voltammetry (CV), among others.; It was found via XRD and Raman that the crystalline structure is orthorhombic with space group Pbnm. The synthesized CaTiO3 particles have an average diameter of ≈ 2 µm. Furthermore, the value obtained for the energy gap (Eg) was 3.41 eV; it also presents a low energy step at a value of 2.66 eV, which may correspond to the mingap electronic states. The glassy carbon electrode modified with the CaTiO3 film showed a sensitivity for determining nitrobenzene (NB) in an aqueous solution. Therefore, it can be concluded that the development of CaTiO3 particles is a viable alternative to be used as a sensor of organic contaminants in water.


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SEM micrographs of CaTiO3 particles at different magnifications: A) 5.19 kx, B) 20.5 kx.



How to Cite

Hinostroza, J. J., Trujillo Navarrete, B., Félix Navarro, R. M., Paraguay Delgado, F., Rodríguez Barrera, J. R., & Ochoa Terán, A. (2024). Synthesis and characterization of calcium titanate (CaTiO3) as a potential electrochemical sensor of organic pollutants in aqueous solution. REVISTA DE CIENCIAS TECNOLÓGICAS, 7(1), e312.



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