Evaluation of the effectiveness of PCA and ICA in improving muscle movement recognition from raw EMG signals
Keywords:EMG, Cross communication, Machine Learning, Data mining
In the last decade, the development of classification models through machine learning for the control of multifunctional prosthetic devices has been increasing. Electromyography (EMG) are recordings produced by muscle fibers naturally when performing movements; if modeled, they could play a more active role in this type of control. These signals are used to control devices/applications. The problem with these models is the stochastic nature of the signal, the variability between subjects and the inherent cross-communication that makes them inaccurate when faced with a high number of movements. The stochastic nature and variability of the signal are already widely studied, however, there are still no definitive results that describe generalizable movement classification models. Here, two databases available on the CapgMyo network and the Ninapro project are studied, their characteristics are evaluated, with the objective of investigating the variability of the muscle signal between subjects, the factors that modify it and how the use of analysis affects principal components (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) to EMG information in classification models. A comparison was made between the results in terms of recognition percentages of classic machine learning methods such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and quadratic analysis (QDA) using transformation techniques to new spaces introducing the possibility of performing a dimensionality reduction. with PCA and ICA, algorithms usually used to solve problems such as blind source separation (BSS), which is applicable to the phenomenon presented in muscle signals and their acquisition through surface electrodes. The results can be evaluated through the recognition percentage of the classification models created, these show that for raw EMG signals the PCA and ICA methods are useful to perform a reduction in the dimensionality of the data without providing a significant increase in the recognition percentages. It was shown that the recognition percentages in the classification of movements for the Capgmyo database were higher thanks to the characteristics that define it, a higher recognition percentage was obtained ranging from 72.5% to 87.9% with QDA, and 82.8% to 90% for QDA with PCA. The main contribution is the evaluation of the effectiveness of algorithms such as PCA and ICA in machine learning tasks with raw EMG data. Future work is to lay the foundations to reduce the effects of cross-communication in EMG recordings.
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